CONTENTS OF THE BOOK
Chapter 1 Concept and Scope of Environmental Biology
Introduction; derivation; definitions; environment and its types; ecological
spectrum; biosphere vs. ecosphere; sub-divisions and scope of environmental
Chapter 2 Environmental Factors
Definition of environment, biosphere, components of biosphere: 1- Atmosphere,
2- Lithosphere, 3- Hydrosphere; environmental factors 1. Abiotic factors : I-
Physical factors viz. light, temperature, humidity (moisture), water, atmospheric
gases, current and pressure; II-Edaphic factors, and III-Topographic factors,
and 2. Biotic components.
Chapter 3 Essential Elements and Concept of Limiting
Macro and Micro elements; Liebig’s law of minimum; Shelford’s law
of Tolerance; Combined concept of limiting factors.
Chapter 4 Biotic Environment and Animal Relationships
Definition of biotic environment; Intra-specific and Interspecific relationship.
Chapter 5 Population Ecology
Introduction; Level of animal organization; definition of population; salient
features of population; attributes of population; regulation of population size.
Chapter 6 Community Ecology
Definition: types of communities; common attributes of community: diversity,
structure, dominants, pattern diversity, periodicity, interdependence, turnover,
ecological niches, equivalents, ecotone and edge effect, concept of community,
ecological succession; quantitative and qualitative attributes of the community.
Chapter 7 Ecosystem
Introduction; ecosystem homeostasis; characteristics of ecosystem; Evolution
and diversity of ecosystem; Ecosystem and the laws of thermodynamics; structure
of a typical ecosystem (freshwater ecosystem as an example); types of ecosystem;
dynamics of ecosystem and significance of ecosystem study.
Chapter 8 Biogeochemical Cycle
Introduction; definition; phases of biogeochemical cycle; types of biogeochemical
cycle– gaseous cycle(C, N and O); sedimentary cycle (S and P).
Chapter 9 Biomes[Terrestrial Habitat]
Definition, characteristics; major biomes of the world and their important fauna.
Chapter 10 Animal Distribution and Zoogeography
Introduction; Classification of animal distribution; pattern of distribution
(cosmopolitan discontinuous, bipolar and selected); reason for discontinuous
distribution; Zoogeography; Wallace’s Line.
Chapter 11 Freshwater Habitat [Ecology]
Introduction; types of freshwater habitats (lontic and latic habitat); lake
eutrophication; principal lakes of India; freshwater adaptation; classes of
river water quality.
Chapter 12 Marine Ecology
Introduciton; characteristics; zonation of marine habitat (pelagic and benthic
region); adaptation of deep-sea fauna; Law of the sea and exclusive economic
Chapter 13 Coral Reefs
Introduction; definition; distribution; coloration; who forms the coral reef
? composition; types of coral reef; theories of coral reef formation; significance
of coral reef.
Chapter 14 Estuarine Ecology
Introduction; estuarine area of India; ecological characteristics; biota of
estuaries; types of estuaries; principal estuaries-Chilka Lake; brakishwater
farms in India.
Chapter 15 Planktons
Introduction; definition; occurrence; types; common phyto and zooplanktons of
Indian waters; significance of planktons.
Chapter 16 Environmental Pollution and Public Health
Introduction; definition (pollution and pollutants); classification of pollutants;
causes of environmental pollution; types of pollution; pollution in relation
to public health; Role of green chemistry for sustainable future.
Chapter 17 Major Anthropogenic Global Problems
1. Acid rain 2. Eutrophication 3. Greenhouse effect 4. Smog 5. Ozone depletion.
Chapter 18 Air Pollution
Definition; sources; principal types and common air pollutants; sources and
effects; occupational diseases; major air pollution episodes; ecological effects;
prevention and control of air pollution; biological indications for air pollution;
odorous air pollutants.
Chapter 19 Water Pollution
Introduction; definition, sources; categories; biological magnification; BOD;
water pollution control.
Chapter 20 Noise Pollution
Introduction; definition of noise; and noise pollution; sources; types; measurement
of noise, unit of sound; sound levels of different sources; adverse effects
of noise in human beings; ambient noise standards; prevention and control of
noise pollution; general misconceptions about loud noise.
Chapter 21 Radioactive Pollution
Introduction; types; sources of radioactive pollution; radioisotopes; half-life
of important radionuclides; measurement of radiation; effects of ionizing radiation;
mechanism of ionizing radiation reaction; types of high energy radiation; effects
of non-ionizing radiations; beneficial aspects of radiation; biological magnification
of radioactive elements; maximum permissible dose; preventive measures from
radiation; important radiation episodes.
Chapter 22 Thermal Pollution
Introduction; sources of thermal pollution; effects of thermal pollution and
Chapter 23 Pesticide Pollution
Definition, classification; Synthetic insecticides-organo chlorine; organophosphates;
carbamates; pyrethroids; dinitrophenols; herbicides; fungicides; other pesticides-
rodenticides; molluscicides; piscicides; uses of pesticides, pathways of pesticides
in to the environment; effects of pesticides, fate of pesticides, salient features
of pesticides, control of pesticidal pollution.
Chapter 24 Soil [Land] Pollution
Introduction, definition of soil pollution; sources of soil pollution; detrimental
effects of soil pollutants; diseases caused due to soil pollution; Procedures
for reducing control soil pollution; Biodynamic farming in India; Soil indicator
Chapter 25 Wild Life in India
Introduction, historical background; aims of wildlife conservation; importance
of wildlife conservation; necessity for conservation; causes of wildlife depletion;
endangered fauna of India; projects for endangered species; methods of wildlife
conservation; administrative and legislative measures for wildlife protection.
Chapter 26 Endangered Flora of India
Introduction; rare species of plants; their categories and definitions; endangered
flora of India; Medicinal plants of India from conservation view point; Biological
resources; Gene and seed banks.
Chapter 27 Environmental Organizations,Laws and Policies
International organizations, national organizations, environmental laws and
Chapter 28 Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment
Introduction; EIA: definition and scope characteristics; parameters for EIA;
objectives of EIA; EIA wing; risk assessment; hazard identification; toxicity
assessment; exposure assessment and risk characterization.
Chatper 29 Biodiversity
Introduction; Major components of biodivesity– 1- Plant genetic resources;
2- Animal genetic resources, 3- Fish genetic resources and 4- Microbial genetic
resources; types of biodiversity; causes of loss of biodiversity; world’s
biodiversity outlook; biodiversity profile of India; biodiversity related projects
in India; what needs to be done for biodiversity conservation: I – At
national level, and II- At international level; DNA technology to the aid of
biodiversity conservation; value of biodiversity; international conventions
on biodiversity; biodiversity act 2003; economic importance of biodiversity
and key terms related to biodiversity.