Fruit Tree Physiology
Fruit Tree Physiology
by Dhillon/Bhatt
Year 2012
Paperback/Hardbound Hardbound
ISBN 10 9380428421
ISBN 13 9789380428420
Language English
Outside India Price USD 169.95
Priceर 3295.00 र 2801.00
You Saveर 494.00 (15.00%)
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by Author 'Dhillon/Bhatt'
on Language 'ENGLISH'
Books on 'Agricultural Science'
Books on 'Horticulture Science'
Published in Year '2012'
Book Details
Untitled Document

CONTENTS OF THE BOOK

Preface v
Foreword vii

CHAPTER 1. Bud Dormancy 1

Introduction 1
Definition 1
Classification 2
Locus and site of dormancy perception 4
Physiological mechanism of bud dormancy 5
Molecular mechanisms of hormone action in bud dormancy 8
Significance of dormancy 10
Factors affecting bud dormancy 11
Status of water in buds 17
Release of bud dormancy 17
Methods to overcome bud dormancy 19
Conclusion 22
References 22

CHAPTER 2. Chilling Requirement in Fruit Crops 26

Introduction 26
Importance of chilling 26
Length of chilling requirement in fruit species 27
Progression into and out of resting state 34
Movement of rest influence 34
Effective chilling temperatures 34
Chilling negation by high temepratures 36
Heat accumulation, stress and rest 36
Models for fruit trees 38
Common chill accumulation models 40
Conclusion 45
References 45

CHAPTER 3. Heat Units and Thermoperiodism 49

Introduction 49
Uses of heat units or growing degree days 52
Heat units in fruit crops 53
Apple 53
Grapes 54
Date Palm 55
Mango 56
Citrus 57
Raspberry 59
Peach 59
Apricot 60
Banana 60
Pineapple 61
Olive 61
Thermoperiodism in fruit crops 61
Effect of thermoperiodism in fruit crops 62
Mango 62
Strawberry 63
Apple 64
Litchi 64
Citrus 64
Pineapple 65
Grapes 65
Annona 66
Conclusion 66
References 67

CHAPTER 4. Physiology of Flowering in Horticultural Crops 70

Introduction 70
Flowering physiology 70
Mechanisms of flowering 74
Photoperiodism 76
Phytochrome and flowering 79
Photoperiodism and flowering in fruit crops 81
Florigen concept 83
Importance of photoperiodism 85
Vernalization and flowering 85
Factors for induction of flowering in fruit crops 88
Molecular and genetic aspects of flowering 101
Conclusion 104
References 105

CHAPTER 5. Fruit Growth and Development 111

Stages of fruit development 111
Key growth stages 114
Factors affecting fruit growth and development 116
Fruit growth and development in some important fruit crops 119
Mango 119
Citrus 123
Grape 128
Apple 131
Pear and Stone Fruits 136
Plum 137
Strawberry 139
Loquat 140
Conclusion 140
References 141

CHAPTER 6. Unfruitfulness in Fruit Crops – Causes and Control Measures 147

Introduction 147
Causes of unfruitfulness 147
External factors 148
Temperature 148
Humidity 149
Light 150
Wind 150
Rain at bloom 150
Tree Age and Vigour 150
Soil Moisture Status 150
Nutritional Status of Soil 151
Grafting 151
Pruning 151
Locality 152
Girdling 152
End Season Fertility 152
Chemicals and Pesticides 152
Pests and Diseases 153
Root Stocks 153
Inter Stocks 153
Internal factors 153
Evolutionary Tendencies 153
Genetic Factors 161
Physiological Factors 163
Management of unfruitfulness 164
Conclusion 172
References 172

CHAPTER 7. Alternate Bearing in Fruit Plants – Causes and Management 179

Introduction 179
Theories of alternate bearing 180
Factors responsible for alternate bearing behaviour in fruit crops 181
Endogenous Factors 182
Exogenous Factors 190
Environmental factors 190
Edaphic factors 193
Biotic factors (pests and diseases) 194
Measures to overcome biennial bearing 194
Conclusion 199
References 199

CHAPTER 8. Parthenocarpy – A Mechanism for Seedlessness 204

Introduction 204
Types of parthenocarpy 205
Importance of parthenocarpy 206
Origin of parthenocarpy 207
Physiological basis of parthenocarpy 207
Factors affecting parthenocarpy 209
Genetics of parthenocarpy 215
Causes and induction of parthenocarpy in fruit crops 220
Conclusion 227
References 228

CHAPTER 9. Graft Incompatibility – Causes and Remedial Measures 234

Introduction 234
Visual symptoms of incompatibility 235
Types/ classification of incompatibility 236
Causes of incompatibility 237
Structural or Anatomical 237
Differences in Stock and Scion Growth 242
Environmental Aspects 242
Virus and Mycoplasma Problems 243
Nutritional Deficiency 243
Biochemical Reasons 243
Detection of incompatible combinations 246
Electrophoresis 246
Invitro Callus Fusion Method 246
Microscopic or Histological Detection 247
Magnetic Resonance Imaging 247
Macroscopic Detection 247
Breaking Strength Test 247
Methods to overcome incompatibility 247
Conclusion 248
References 248

CHAPTER 10. Physiology of Dwarfism in Fruit Plants 251

Introduction 251
Physiology of dwarfism 251
Methods to achieve dwarfism 254
Use of Dwarfing Root Stocks, Inter Stocks and Genetically Dwarf
Scion Cultivars 254
Use of Bioregulators 266
Incompatible Root Stocks 269
Induction of Viral Infection 269
Pruning and Training 270
Nutrients 271
Phenols 271
Invitro Techniques 271
Genetic Engineering and Others 271
Conclusion 272
References 272

CHAPTER 11. Fruit Ripening – Biochemistry, Physiology and Regulation 278

Introduction 278
Climacteric vs. nonclimacteric ripening 279
Mechanism of ripening 281
Changes occurring during ripening 283
Degradation of Chlorophyll and Pigment Synthesis 284
Hydrolysis of Sugars to Starch 285
Textural Softening 285
Production of Aroma Volatiles 286
Cell Wall Degradation and Softening of Fruits 287
Changes in Organic Acids 288
Changes in Amino Acids and Proteins 289
Phenolic Compounds 289
Regulation of ripening 290
Conclusion 294
References 294

CHAPTER 12. Abscission in Fruit Plants 298

Introduction 298
Changes during abscission 298
Abscission zones 299
Wall Weakening 300
Wall Changes 300
Control mechanism of abscission 300
Regulation of abscission 303
Regulation of Timing 303
Regulation of Cell Separation 305
Protection of fractured surfaces 306
Functions of abscission 307
Significance of abscission 307
Factors influencing abscission 307
Manipulation of abscission 308
Conclusion 308
References 309

Index 310

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Dr Wasakha Singh Dhillon has contributed significantly in the field of education, who guided under graduate as class in charge and post- graduate students as major advisor. He had been actively involved in the restructuring of UG and PG course curriculum of horticulture, and prepared five practical manuals. Dr Dhillon has also made remarkable contributions in horticulture research in the field of crop improvement, plant propagation, agro- horti- techniques and post- harvest technology. His scientific contributions led to the development of 10 varieties and 25 recommendations on different fruit crops, which are included in the Package of Practices for Fruit Crops of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. He was Principal Investigator of 3 adhoc research projects, edited a book, and has published 110 research papers, 10 book chapters, 2 review papers and 1 technical bulletin. His achievements in teaching and research have been recognized as he was awarded Shri GL Chadha Memorial Gold Medal (2006) and Fellowship (2007) by Horticultural Society of India, and Shri Hans Raj Pahwa Award (2006) by PAU. He has also been selected for Meritorious Teacher Award (2010) of the University.

Z.A. Bhat is a Scientist in the Department of Pomology, Shere-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (K)- Srinagar. He graduated from TNAU and post graduated from ANGRAU- Hyderabad and remained topper in PG (Hort.). He has worked on new generation growth regulators (Brassinosteroids and CPPU), revival of Ambri apple, canopy management, survey and selection in Ambri- an indigenous apple cultivar presently at the verge of its extinction. His current research is on transgenic and molecular approaches in fruit crops. Bhat is recipient of certificate of merit in PG; fellowship from Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR-JRF); qualified NET and Kashmir Administrative Service-KAS (Mains-2004). He has many national and international publications to his credit.