Fruit Production in INDIA
Fruit Production in INDIA
by Dhillon, W S
Year 2013
Paperback/Hardbound Hardbound
ISBN 10 9382471065
ISBN 13 9789382471066
Language English
Outside India Price USD 500.95
Priceर 9995.00 र 8496.00
You Saveर 1499.00 (15.00%)
Related Books
by Author 'Dhillon'
by Author 'W S'
on Language 'ENGLISH'
Books on 'Agricultural Science'
Books on 'Horticulture Science'
Published in Year '2013'
Book Details
Untitled Document

CONTENTS OF THE BOOK

ALMOND ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction and Importance ...... 1
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 2
Ecological Requirements ...... 2
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 3
Propagation and Planting ...... 4
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 4
Flowering Physiology ...... 4
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 6
Major Diseases, Insect-pests and their Management ...... 6
Harvesting and Storage of Fruits ...... 7
References ...... 8


ANNONA ..................................................................................................................................... 9
Introduction and Importance ...... 9
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 10
Ecological Requirements ...... 10
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 11
Propagation and Planting ...... 11
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 13
Flowering Physiology ...... 13
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 14
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 16
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 16
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 16
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 16
References ...... 17


AONLA ...................................................................................................................................... 19
Introduction and Importance ...... 19
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 20
Ecological Requirements ...... 20
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 21
Propagation and Planting ...... 22
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 24
Flowering Physiology ...... 24
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 25
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 25
Physiological Disorder and their Management ...... 25
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 26
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 27
References ...... 28


APPLE........................................................................................................................................ 31
Introduction and Importance ...... 31
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 32
Ecological Requirements ...... 32
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 33
Propagation and Planting ...... 36
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 38
Flowering Physiology ...... 39
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 40
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 42
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 45
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 46
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 50
References ...... 54


APRICOT .................................................................................................................................. 59
Introduction and Importance ...... 59
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 60
Ecological Requirements ...... 60
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 60
Propagation and Planting ...... 62
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 62
Flowering Physiology ...... 63
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 63
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 63
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 64
Harvesting of Fruits ...... 65
References ...... 66


AVOCADO ................................................................................................................................ 67
Introduction and Importance ...... 67
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 69
Ecological Requirements ...... 69
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 70
Propagation and Planting ...... 73
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 74
Flowering Physiology ...... 75
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 77
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 78
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 79
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 80
Ripening and Post- harvest Handling of Fruits ...... 80
References ...... 81


BAEL ......................................................................................................................................... 83

Introduction and Importance ...... 83
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 84
Ecological Requirements ...... 85
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 85
Propagation and Planting ...... 87
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 89
Flowering Physiology ...... 89
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 89
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 90
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 90
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 91
References ...... 91


BANANA ................................................................................................................................... 95

Introduction and Importance ...... 95
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 97
Ecological Requirements ...... 99
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 99
Propagation and Planting ...... 105
Tree Architecture ...... 107
Flowering Physiology ...... 108
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 110
Abiotic Stresses ...... 115
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 116
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 116
Ripening and Post- harvest Handling of Fruits ...... 120
References ...... 122


BER.......................................................................................................................................... 127
Introduction and Importance ...... 127
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 127
Ecological Requirements ...... 128
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 128
Propagation and Planting ...... 130
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 131
Flowering Physiology ...... 132
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 132
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 133
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 133
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 133
Ber Based Cropping Systems ...... 133
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 134
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 135
References ...... 136


CARAMBOLA ......................................................................................................................... 139
Introduction and Importance ...... 139
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 139
Ecological Requirements ...... 140
Propagation and Planting ...... 141
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 141
Flowering Physiology ...... 141
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 142
Contents / xiii
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 142
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 142
References ...... 143


CASHEW ................................................................................................................................. 145
Introduction and Importance ...... 145
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 146
Ecological Requirements ...... 146
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 148
Propagation and Planting ...... 150
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 155
Flowering Physiology ...... 156
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 157
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 159
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 160
Ripening and Harvesting of Fruits ...... 164
References ...... 165


CHERRY.................................................................................................................................. 167

Introduction and Importance ...... 167
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 168
Ecological Requirements ...... 168
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 168
Propagation and Planting ...... 172
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 172
Flowering Physiology ...... 174
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 175
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 175
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 176
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 176
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 177
References ...... 178


CHESTNUT.............................................................................................................................. 181
Introduction and Importance ...... 181
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 182
Ecological Requirements ...... 182
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 182
Propagation and Planting ...... 184
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 184
Flowering Physiology ...... 185
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 185
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 186
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 186
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 187
References ...... 188


CHIRONJI ............................................................................................................................... 189
Introduction and Importance ...... 189
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 189
Ecological Requirements ...... 190
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 190
Propagation and Planting ...... 190
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 191
Contents / xiv
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 191
Ripening and Harvesting of Fruits ...... 191
References ...... 191


CITRUS ................................................................................................................................... 193
Introduction and Importance ...... 193
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 194
Ecological Requirements ...... 195
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 196
Propagation and Planting ...... 198
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 200
Flowering Physiology ...... 200
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 201
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 202
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 203
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 204
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 204
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 208
References ...... 210


DATEPALM ............................................................................................................................. 213

Introduction and Importance ...... 213
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 213
Ecological Requirements ...... 215
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 216
Propagation and Planting ...... 217
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 219
Flowering Physiology ...... 219
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 220
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 221
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 221
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 222
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 222
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 223
References ...... 224


FIG ......................................................................................................................................... 227

Introduction and Importance ...... 227
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 228
Ecological Requirements ...... 228
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 229
Propagation and Planting ...... 229
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 230
Flowering Physiology ...... 231
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 231
Physiological Disorder and its Management ...... 231
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 232
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 233
References ...... 233


GRAPE .................................................................................................................................... 235
Introduction and Importance ...... 235
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 236
Ecological Requirements ...... 238
Contents / xv
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 239
Propagation and Planting ...... 246
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 247
Flowering Physiology ...... 248
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 249
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 251
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 252
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 253
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 254
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 257
References ...... 261


GUAVA .................................................................................................................................... 263

Introduction and Importance ...... 263
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 264
Ecological Requirements ...... 265
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 265
Propagation and Planting ...... 267
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 269
Flowering Physiology ...... 270
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 271
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 272
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 272
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 272
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 277
References ...... 278

HAZELNUT ............................................................................................................................. 279
Introduction and Importance ...... 279
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 279
Ecological Requirements ...... 280
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 280
Propagation and Planting ...... 281
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 282
Flowering Physiology ...... 282
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 282
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 283
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 283
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 283
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 284
References ...... 284


JACK FRUIT ........................................................................................................................... 287
Introduction and Importance ...... 287
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 288
Ecological Requirements ...... 290
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 290
Propagation and Planting ...... 293
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 294
Flowering Physiology ...... 294
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 296
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 297
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 299
References ...... 300
Contents / xvi


JAMUN .................................................................................................................................... 303
Introduction and Importance ...... 303
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 304
Ecological Requirements ...... 305
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 305
Propagation and Planting ...... 306
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 307
Flowering Physiology ...... 308
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 308
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 309
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 309
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 310
References ...... 311


KER.......................................................................................................................................... 313
Introduction and Importance ...... 313
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 314
Ecological Requirements ...... 315
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 315
Propagation and Planting ...... 315
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 316
Flowering Physiology ...... 316
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 316
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 316
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 316


KIWI FRUIT ............................................................................................................................. 319
Introduction and Importance ...... 319
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 320
Ecological Requirements ...... 321
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 321
Propagation and Planting ...... 322
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 323
Flowering Physiology ...... 323
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 325
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 325
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 326
Physiological Disorders ...... 326
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 326
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 327
References ...... 328


LITCHI ..................................................................................................................................... 329
Introduction and Importance ...... 329
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 330
Ecological Requirements ...... 333
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 333
Propagation and Planting ...... 336
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 340
Flowering Physiology ...... 341
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 343
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 345
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 345
Contents / xvii
Physiological Disorder and its Management ...... 345
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 345
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 346
References ...... 349


LONGAN ................................................................................................................................. 351
Introduction and Importance ...... 351
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 352
Ecological Requirements ...... 354
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 355
Propagation and Planting ...... 356
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 358
Flowering Physiology ...... 358
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 359
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 360
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 361
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 362
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 362
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 363
References ...... 365


LOQUAT ................................................................................................................................. 367
Introduction and Importance ...... 367
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 367
Ecological Requirements ...... 368
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 368
Propagation and Planting ...... 370
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 371
Flowering Physiology ...... 371
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 372
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 372
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 372
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 372
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 373
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 374
References ...... 375


MAHUA ................................................................................................................................... 379

Introduction and Importance ...... 379
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 380
Ecological Requirements ...... 380
Commercial Varieties ...... 380
Propagation and Planting ...... 381
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 381
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 381
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 381
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 381
References ...... 382


MANGO ................................................................................................................................... 383
Introduction and Importance ...... 383
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 384
Ecological Requirements ...... 384
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 385
Contents / xviii
Propagation and Planting ...... 389
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 392
Flowering Physiology ...... 393
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 394
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 395
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 396
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 397
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 399
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 401
References ...... 401


MANGOSTEEN ....................................................................................................................... 405
Introduction and Importance ...... 405
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 406
Ecological Requirements ...... 406
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 406
Propagation and Planting ...... 407
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 407
Flowering Physiology ...... 407
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 407
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 408
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 408
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 409
References ...... 410


NONI......................................................................................................................................... 413
Introduction and Importance ...... 413
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 419
Ecological Requirements ...... 420
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 420
Propagation and Planting ...... 421
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 422
Flowering Physiology ...... 422
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 423
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 424
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 425
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 425
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 425
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 427
References ...... 428


PAPAYA .................................................................................................................................. 431
Introduction and Importance ...... 431
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 431
Ecological Requirements ...... 433
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 434
Propagation and Planting ...... 436
Flowering Physiology ...... 437
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 438
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 439
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 439
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 441
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 446
References ...... 447
Contents / xix


PASSION FRUIT ..................................................................................................................... 451
Introduction and Importance ...... 451
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 451
Ecological Requirements ...... 452
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 452
Propagation and Planting ...... 452
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 453
Flowering Physiology ...... 453
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 454
Physiological Disorder and its Management ...... 454
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 454
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 454
References ...... 454


PEACH .................................................................................................................................... 457

Introduction and Importance ...... 457
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 457
Ecological Requirements ...... 459
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 459
Propagation and Planting ...... 463
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 464
Flowering Physiology ...... 465
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 465
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 468
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 468
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 470
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 470
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 474
References ...... 475


PEAR ....................................................................................................................................... 479

Introduction and Importance ...... 479
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 480
Ecological Requirements ...... 480
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 480
Propagation and Planting ...... 485
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 487
Flowering Physiology ...... 488
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 489
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 491
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 492
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 492
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 493
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 495
References ...... 497


PECAN .................................................................................................................................... 501
Introduction and Importance ...... 501
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 502
Ecological Requirements ...... 503
Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 503
Propagation and Planting ...... 504
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 505
Flowering Physiology ...... 506
Contents / xx
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 509
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 510
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 510
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 512
References ...... 513


PERSIMON ............................................................................................................................. 515
Introduction and Importance ...... 515
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 515
Ecological Requirements ...... 515
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 515
Propagation and Planting ...... 516
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 516
Flowering Physiology ...... 516
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 517
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 517
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 518
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 518
References ...... 518


PHALSA................................................................................................................................... 519
Introduction and Importance ...... 519
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 519
Ecological Requirements ...... 519
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 520
Propagation and Planting ...... 520
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 520
Flowering Physiology ...... 521
Nutritionand Water Management ...... 521
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 521
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 522
Ripening and Use of Fruits ...... 522
References ...... 522


PINEAPPLE............................................................................................................................. 523
Introduction and Importance ...... 523
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 523
Ecological Requirements ...... 524
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 524
Propagation and Planting ...... 526
Flowering Physiology ...... 528
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 528
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 528
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 529
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 529
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 529
References ...... 530


PISTACHIO ............................................................................................................................. 531

Introduction and Importance ...... 531
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 531
Ecological Requirements ...... 531
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 532
Propagation and Planting ...... 533
Contents / xxi
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 533
Flowering Physiology ...... 533
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 533
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 534
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 534
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 534
Harvesting and Storage of Nuts ...... 535
References ...... 535


PLUM ...................................................................................................................................... 537
Introduction and Importance ...... 537
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 538
Ecological Requirements ...... 539
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 540
Propagation and Planting ...... 546
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 547
Flowering Physiology ...... 547
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 549
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 551
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 551
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 551
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 552
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 555
References ...... 556


POMEGRANATE .................................................................................................................... 559
Introduction and Importance ...... 559
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 561
Ecological Requirements ...... 561
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 563
Propagation and Planting ...... 564
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 566
Flowering Physiology ...... 568
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 569
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 570
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 570
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 571
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 574
References ...... 577


QUINCE ................................................................................................................................... 585
Introduction and Importance ...... 585
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 586
Ecological Requirements ...... 586
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 587
Propagation and Planting ...... 587
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 588
Flowering Physiology ...... 588
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 588
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 589
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 589
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 589
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 590
References ...... 590
Contents / xxii


RAMBUTAN............................................................................................................................. 591
Introduction and Importance ...... 591
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 592
Ecological Requirements ...... 593
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 593
Propagation and Planting ...... 594
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 595
Flowering Physiology ...... 595
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 597
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 597
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 598
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 598
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 598
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 599
References ...... 601


SALVADORA .......................................................................................................................... 603
Introduction and Importance ...... 603
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 604
Ecological Requirements ...... 604
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 604
Propagation and Planting ...... 605
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 605
Flowering Physiology ...... 605
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 606
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 606
Harvesting of Fruits ...... 606
References ...... 606


SAPOTA .................................................................................................................................. 609
Introduction and Importance ...... 609
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 610
Ecological Requirements ...... 610
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 611
Propagation and Planting ...... 612
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 614
Flowering Physiology ...... 614
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 615
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 616
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 616
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 617
References ...... 619


SEEBUCKTHORN .................................................................................................................. 623

Introduction and Importance ...... 623
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 623
Ecological Requirements ...... 624
Commercial Varieties ...... 625
Propagation and Planting ...... 625
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 626
Flowering Physiology ...... 626
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 627
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 627
Ripening, Storage and Processing of Fruits ...... 628
References ...... 629
Contents / xxiii


STRAWBERRY ....................................................................................................................... 631

Introduction and Importance ...... 631
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 631
Ecological Requirements ...... 632
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 632
Propagation and Planting ...... 634
Flowering Physiology ...... 637
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 638
Role of Bio-regulators ...... 640
Physiological Disorder and its Management ...... 641
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 641
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 643
References ...... 644


TAMARIND ............................................................................................................................. 647
Introduction and Importance ...... 647
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 647
Ecological Requirements ...... 648
Species, Commercial Varieties and Rootstocks ...... 648
Propagation and Planting ...... 649
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 652
Flowering Physiology ...... 652
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 654
Role of Bio- regulators ...... 654
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 654
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 656
Storage of Fruits ...... 657
References ...... 657


WALNUT ................................................................................................................................. 661

Introduction and Importance ...... 661
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 662
Ecological Requirements ...... 663
Species and Commercial Varieties ...... 663
Propagation and Planting ...... 665
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 667
Flowering Physiology ...... 668
Nutrition, Water Management and Abiotic Stresses ...... 668
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 669
Harvesting of Fruits ...... 670
References ...... 671


WOOD APPLE ........................................................................................................................ 673

Introduction and Importance ...... 673
Origin, Distribution and Systematics ...... 675
Ecological Requirements ...... 675
Propagation and Planting ...... 675
Tree Architecture and Pruning ...... 676
Flowering Physiology ...... 676
Nutrition and Water Management ...... 676
Fruit Quality Enhancement Techniques ...... 676
Physiological Disorders and their Management ...... 677
Major Diseases, Insect- pests and their Management ...... 677
Ripening and Storage of Fruits ...... 677
References ...... 678