Tropical & Sub Tropical Fruit Crops :  Corp Improvement & Varietal Wealth  2 VOLS SET
Tropical & Sub Tropical Fruit Crops : Corp Improvement & Varietal Wealth 2 VOLS SET
by Ghosh, S N
Year 2014
Paperback/Hardbound Hardbound
ISBN 10 9382471979
ISBN 13 9789382471974
Language English
Outside India Price USD 500.95
Priceर 9995.00 र 8496.00
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by Author 'Ghosh'
by Author 'S N'
on Language 'ENGLISH'
Books on 'Agricultural Science'
Books on 'Horticulture Science'
Published in Year '2014'
Book Details
Untitled Document

Contents of the Book

1. AONLA .................................................................................................................................. 1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1
Objective of crop improvement .............................................................................................. 3
Cytogenetic .............................................................................................................................. 3
Problem in breeding ................................................................................................................ 3
Flowering shoots ..................................................................................................................... 4
Floral biology .......................................................................................................................... 4
Species .................................................................................................................................... 8
Native diversity ....................................................................................................................... 9
National Germplasm banks .................................................................................................... 10
Crop improvement methods .................................................................................................... 9
Selection ............................................................................................................................... 10
Cultivars developed by selection ......................................................................................... 10
Hybridization .......................................................................................................................... 15
Mutation breeding ................................................................................................................. 15
Polyploidy breeding .............................................................................................................. 15
Status of applications of molecular markers ....................................................................... 18
Future thrusts ........................................................................................................................ 19

2. AVOCADO ............................................................................................................................ 27
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 27
Objective of crop improvement ............................................................................................ 28
Cytogenetic ............................................................................................................................ 29
Inheritance pattern ................................................................................................................ 29
Problem in breeding .............................................................................................................. 29
Floral biology ........................................................................................................................ 30
Different species .................................................................................................................... 31
Types of avocado ................................................................................................................. 32
Germplasm and genetic resources ........................................................................................ 33
Crop improvement methods .................................................................................................. 35
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 35
Selection ............................................................................................................................... 35
Significant selection in India ................................................................................................ 35
Hybridization .......................................................................................................................... 36
Mutation breeding ................................................................................................................. 39
Polyploidy .............................................................................................................................. 39
Resistance breeding .............................................................................................................. 39
Rootstock breeding ............................................................................................................... 39
Biotechnology ....................................................................................................................... 40
Important varieties in India and other countries ............................................................... 42

3. BAEL..................................................................................................................................... 51
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 51
Objective of crop improvement ............................................................................................ 53
Cytogenetic ............................................................................................................................ 53
Inheritance pattern ................................................................................................................ 54
Problem in breeding .............................................................................................................. 55
Floral biology ........................................................................................................................ 55
Different species .................................................................................................................... 58
Crop improvement methods .................................................................................................. 58
Collection, introduction and evaluation ............................................................................... 58
Varieties developed through selection ................................................................................. 60
Hybridization .......................................................................................................................... 64
Future thrust .......................................................................................................................... 65

4. BANANA ............................................................................................................................... 71
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 71
Objective of crop improvement ............................................................................................ 73
Cytogenetic ............................................................................................................................ 74
Inheritance pattern ................................................................................................................ 77
Problem in breeding .............................................................................................................. 81
Floral biology ........................................................................................................................ 82
Genetic diversity .................................................................................................................... 84
Crop improvement methods .................................................................................................. 98
Introduction and selection ................................................................................................... 98
Clonal selection/ selection .................................................................................................. 101
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 103
Polyploidy ............................................................................................................................ 110
Genetic transformation ........................................................................................................ 115
Mutation breeding ............................................................................................................... 116
Banana varieties .................................................................................................................. 117
National gene bank ............................................................................................................. 126

5. BER .................................................................................................................................... 137
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 137
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 138
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 139
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 140
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 141
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 141
Incompatibility ..................................................................................................................... 145
Different species .................................................................................................................. 146
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 147
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 147
Varieties developed by selection ....................................................................................... 148
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 148
Varieties developed by hybridization ................................................................................. 149
Mutation .............................................................................................................................. 150
Polyploidy breeding ............................................................................................................ 151
Resistance Breeding ............................................................................................................ 152
Bio-technological methods ................................................................................................. 152
Description of important cultivars ..................................................................................... 155

6. CITRUS ............................................................................................................................... 167
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 167
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 169
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 170
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 170
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 171
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 174
Different species .................................................................................................................. 181
Characters employed in the identification and classification .......................................... 183
Genetic diversity in India ................................................................................................... 184
Species and hybrids of commercial importance ................................................................ 187
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 194
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 194
Important cultivars developed through Introduction ....................................................... 212
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 212
Important cultivars developed through selection ............................................................. 212
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 217
Varieties developed by hybridization ................................................................................. 218
Hybridization technique ...................................................................................................... 218
Mutation breeding ............................................................................................................... 219
Biotechnology ..................................................................................................................... 221
Polyploidy breeding ............................................................................................................ 223
Useful Chimeras .................................................................................................................. 224

7. CUSTARD APPLE ............................................................................................................. 237
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 237
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 239
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 239
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 239
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 240
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 241
Factors affecting fruit set ................................................................................................... 244
Improvement of fruit set ..................................................................................................... 244
Different species .................................................................................................................. 245
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 248
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 250
Varieties developed by Introduction .................................................................................. 250
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 252
Varieties developed by selection ....................................................................................... 252
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 254
Variety developed by hybridization ................................................................................... 257
Tissue culture ...................................................................................................................... 257
Genetic transformation ........................................................................................................ 258
Varieties ............................................................................................................................... 258
Future prospects ................................................................................................................. 260

8. DATE PALM....................................................................................................................... 269
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 269
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 271
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 271
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 271
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 272
Different species .................................................................................................................. 274
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 275
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 275
Description of some introduced varieties ......................................................................... 276
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 278
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 279
Hybridization technique ...................................................................................................... 279
Metaxenia ............................................................................................................................. 281
Fruit growth and development ........................................................................................... 281
Status of molecular breeding ............................................................................................. 283
Future strategies .................................................................................................................. 287

9. GRAPE ............................................................................................................................... 293
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 293
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 295
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 296
Inheritance pattern/linkage ................................................................................................. 297
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 302
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 302
Different species of grapes ................................................................................................ 305
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 306
Introduction and evaluation ............................................................................................... 306
Important introduced table cultivars .................................................................................. 307
Introduced white wine varieties ......................................................................................... 312
Introduced red wine varieties ............................................................................................. 313
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 314
Cultivars developed through clonal selection .................................................................. 314
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 317
Wild species used in hybridization .................................................................................... 318
Hybridization technique ...................................................................................................... 318
Prominent grape hybrids ..................................................................................................... 319
Development of grape rootstock hybrids .......................................................................... 322
Polyploidy ............................................................................................................................ 323
Mutation breeding ............................................................................................................... 323
Mutation breeding technique ............................................................................................. 324
Cultivars selected ................................................................................................................ 325

10. GUAVA ............................................................................................................................... 335
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 335
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 336
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 336
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 337
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 337
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 337
Germplasm resources ........................................................................................................... 339
Important species ................................................................................................................ 339
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 342
Introduction and selection ................................................................................................. 342
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 342
Important cultivars developed through selection ............................................................. 344
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 350
Important cultivars developed through hybridization ...................................................... 351
Interspecific hybridization ................................................................................................... 353
Polyploidy ............................................................................................................................ 354
Mutation .............................................................................................................................. 354
State wise popular guava varieties .................................................................................... 355

11. JACKFRUIT ....................................................................................................................... 363
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 363
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 364
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 364
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 364
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 364
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 365
Important species ................................................................................................................ 366
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 367
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 368
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 368
Criteria for selection ............................................................................................................ 368
Varieties developed by selection ....................................................................................... 369
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 372

12. JAMUN ............................................................................................................................... 375
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 375
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 377
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 377
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 378
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 378
Different species .................................................................................................................. 378
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 382
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 384
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 384
Important cultivars developed through seedling selection .............................................. 384
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 387

13. KARONDA ......................................................................................................................... 393
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 393
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 394
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 394
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 394
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 395
Different species .................................................................................................................. 396
Breeding methods ............................................................................................................... 399
Improvement by selection ................................................................................................... 399
Cultivars developed through selection .............................................................................. 400

14. LITCHI ............................................................................................................................... 405
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 405
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 407
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 407
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 408
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 409
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 409
Different species .................................................................................................................. 413
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 414
Introduction and evaluation ............................................................................................... 414
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 414
Criteria for selection of litchi cultivars .............................................................................. 414
Cultivars developed through selection .............................................................................. 416
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 418
Cultivars developed through hybridization ....................................................................... 419
Mutation breeding ............................................................................................................... 421
Polyploidy breeding ............................................................................................................ 421
Important litchi cultivars grown in India ........................................................................... 424

15. MANGO ............................................................................................................................. 433
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 433
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 434
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 435
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 436
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 436
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 437
Different species .................................................................................................................. 441
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 442
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 443
Description of some introduced varieties ......................................................................... 443
Clonal selection ................................................................................................................... 444
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 446
Different hybridization techniques ..................................................................................... 447
hybrids developed through hybridization ......................................................................... 450
Mutation breeding ............................................................................................................... 460
Biotechnology ..................................................................................................................... 460
Important commercial varieties ........................................................................................... 461
Germplasm conservation centers ........................................................................................ 476

16. PAPAYA .............................................................................................................................. 485
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 485
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 488
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 488
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 490
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 493
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 495
Different species .................................................................................................................. 503
Crop improvement ............................................................................................................... 504
Breeding techniques ............................................................................................................ 506
Methods of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 507
Recurrent selection .............................................................................................................. 507
Back cross Method ............................................................................................................. 508
Development of dioecious variety ..................................................................................... 508
Development gynodioecious variety ................................................................................. 509
Resistance breeding ............................................................................................................ 509
Mutation breeding ............................................................................................................... 510
Induction of polyploidy ...................................................................................................... 511
Important varieties ............................................................................................................... 512
Future thrust ........................................................................................................................ 519

17. PINEAPPLE ........................................................................................................................ 527
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 527
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 528
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 529
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 530
Floral biology and fruit development ................................................................................ 531
Different species .................................................................................................................. 535
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 535
Introduction and selection ................................................................................................. 535
Clonal selection ................................................................................................................... 535
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 536
Hybridization technique ...................................................................................................... 537
Hybrid evaluation ................................................................................................................ 538
Interspecific Hybridization .................................................................................................. 539
Polyploidy breeding ............................................................................................................ 540
Mutation breeding ............................................................................................................... 540
Pineapple varieties of India ................................................................................................ 541

18. POMEGRANATE ................................................................................................................ 549
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 549
Objectives of crop improvement ........................................................................................ 551
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 551
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 551
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 552
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 553
Different species .................................................................................................................. 555
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 555
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 556
Germplasm evaluation ......................................................................................................... 557
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 561
Important cultivars developed through selection ............................................................. 561
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 567
Technique of hybridization ................................................................................................. 568
Important cultivars developed through hybridization ..................................................... 569
Mutation .............................................................................................................................. 572
Future strategies ................................................................................................................. 573

19. SAPOTA ............................................................................................................................. 581
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 581
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 582
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 583
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 583
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 584
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 585
Different species .................................................................................................................. 589
Crop improvement methods ................................................................................................ 593
Introduction and evaluation ............................................................................................... 593
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 595
Important cultivars developed through clonal selection .................................................. 596
Hybridization ........................................................................................................................ 604
Technique ............................................................................................................................ 604
Compatibility phenomenon ................................................................................................. 604
Important cultivars developed through hybridozation ..................................................... 605
Mutation .............................................................................................................................. 607
Germplasm status ............................................................................................................... 608
Future prospects ................................................................................................................. 611

20. WOOD APPLE .................................................................................................................. 619
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 619
Objective of crop improvement .......................................................................................... 620
Cytogenetic .......................................................................................................................... 620
Inheritance pattern .............................................................................................................. 620
Problem in breeding ............................................................................................................ 620
Floral biology ...................................................................................................................... 621
Different species .................................................................................................................. 622
Crop improvement ............................................................................................................... 622
Selection .............................................................................................................................. 622